All tea come from the same plant, Camellia Sinensis. The differences between teas arise from processing, growing conditions, and geography. The Camellia Sinensis plant is native to Asia, but is currently cultivated around the world in tropical and subtropical areas.
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The process for making black tea is defined by allowing the leaf to fully oxidize during production (which means water evaporates out of the leaf and the leaf absorbs more oxygen from the air). The results are the characteristic dark brown and black leaf with typically more robust and pronounced flavors.
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All tea starts out green. The green tea process is defined by preventing oxidation. Shortly after picking, the leaves are “fired” (rapid heating) to arrest oxidation and keep the leaf “green” for the duration of production. Green teas are typically steeped for shorter amounts of time and at lower temperatures which will produce a lighter cup with less caffeine.
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Oolong teas are roughly defined as any tea that undergoes partial oxidation (10-90%), but this fact is not useful by itself. “Baking” (take the term literally) is also a common technique in making oolong tea so it is impossible to summarize categorically. The regional styles and cultivars used tend to define them more than anything else. For example, we refer to both Ti Kwan Yin and Big Red Robe as oolong tea, but they have nothing in common.
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The best way to define white tea is by a lack of processing. To crudely summarize, the leaves are picked and gently dried until they are finished. Since they are handled minimally and not re-shaped in any way, the finished product tends to be bulky with the possibility of some incidental oxidation, but nothing intentional.
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All puer tea comes from the southwest region of Yunnan, China. There are two types of Puer: sheng puer and shu puer. Sheng puer is a simple non-oxidized tea whose finished product will change naturally over time. Shu puer starts out as a sheng puer, but goes through one more deliberate and accelerated "post fermentation" process to speed up this change into a matter of weeks as opposed to years.
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Dark tea is from Hunan and Sichuan provinces of China and is an aged tea that steeps up smooth with a natural sweet note. Dark teas are often compressed into shapes (most commonly cakes or bricks).